References: Living Near Diesel Exhaust

What is in diesel exhaust?

Burchill, M. J., Gramotnev, D. K., Gramotnev, G., et al. (2011). Monitoring and analysis of combustion aerosol emissions from fast moving diesel trains. The Science of the Total Environment, 409(5), 985–93.

Health Effects of Diesel Exhaust. (n.d.). Retrieved from

How does diesel affect health?


Brandt, S. J., Perez, L., Künzli, N., et al. (2012). Costs of childhood asthma due to traffic-related pollution in two California communities. The European Respiratory Journal, 40(2), 363–70.


*Benbrahim-Tallaa, L., Baan, R. A., Grosse, Y., et al. (2012). Carcinogenicity of diesel-engine and gasoline-engine exhausts and some nitroarenes. The Lancet Oncology, 13(7), 663–664.

KOTIN, P., FALK, H. L., & THOMAS, M. (1955). Aromatic hydrocarbons. III. Presence in the particulate phase of diesel-engine exhausts and the carcinogenicity of exhaust extracts. A.M.A. Archives of Industrial Health, 11(2), 113–20. Retrieved from

Cardiopulmonary and Immune Response

McDonald, J. D., Campen, M. J., Harrod, K. S., et al. (2011). Engine-operating load influences diesel exhaust composition and cardiopulmonary and immune responses. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(8), 1136–41.

Cognitive Performance

Chen, J.-C., & Schwartz, J. (2009). Neurobehavioral effects of ambient air pollution on cognitive performance in US adults. Neurotoxicology, 30(2), 231–9.


Hart, J. E., Eisen, E. A., & Laden, F. (2012). Occupational diesel exhaust exposure as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, 18(2), 151–4.

Diabetes and Obesity

Liu, C., Ying, Z., Harkema, J., et al. (2013). Epidemiological and experimental links between air pollution and type 2 diabetes. Toxicologic Pathology, 41(2), 361–73.

Sun, Q., Yue, P., Deiuliis, J. A., et al. (2009). Ambient air pollution exaggerates adipose inflammation and insulin resistancein a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Circulation, 119(4), 538–46.

Sun, Z., Mukherjee, B., Brook, R. D., et al. (2013). Air-Pollution and Cardiometabolic Diseases (AIRCMD): a prospective study investigating the impact of air pollution exposure and propensity for type II diabetes. The Science of the Total Environment, 448, 72–8.

Heart Disease

*Hart, J. E., Garshick, E., Smith, T. J., et al. (2013). Ischaemic heart disease mortality and years of work in trucking industry workers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 70(8), 523–528.

Januário, D. A. N. F., Perin, P. M., Maluf, M., et al. (2010). Biological effects and dose-response assessment of diesel exhaust particles on in vitro early embryo development in mice. Toxicological Sciences : An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology, 117(1), 200–8.

Lung Cancer

Bhatia, R., Lopipero, P., & Smith, A. H. (1998). Diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 9(1), 84–91. Retrieved from

IARC: diesel engine exhaust carcinogenic. (2012). Central European Journal of Public Health.

Laumbach, R. J., & Kipen, H. M. (2011). Does diesel exhaust cause lung cancer (yet)? American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 183(7), 843–4.

*Olsson, A. C., Gustavsson, P., Kromhout, H., et al. (2011). Exposure to diesel motor exhaust and lung cancer risk in a pooled analysis from case-control studies in Europe and Canada. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 183(7), 941–8.

Pedeli, X., Hoek, G., & Katsouyanni, K. (2011). Risk assessment of diesel exhaust and lung cancer: combining human and animal studies after adjustment for biases in epidemiological studies. Environmental Health : A Global Access Science Source, 10, 30.

Pintos, J., Parent, M.-E., Richardson, L., et al. (2012). Occupational exposure to diesel engine emissions and risk of lung cancer: evidence from two case-control studies in Montreal, Canada. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 69(11), 787–92.

Other Effects

Hu, S., Herner, J. D., Robertson, W., Kobayashi, R., et al. (2013). Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs from heavy-duty diesel vehicles with DPF and SCR. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995), 63(8), 984–96. Retrieved from

McDonald, J. D., Doyle-Eisele, M., Gigliotti, A., et al. (2012). Part 1. Biologic responses in rats and mice to subchronic inhalation of diesel exhaust from U.S. 2007-compliant engines: report on 1-, 3-, and 12-month exposures in the ACES bioassay. Research Report (Health Effects Institute), (166), 9–120. Retrieved from

OEHHA. (n.d.). Proposition 65 | OEHHA. Retrieved September 9, 2016, from

Who is most affected?

Occupational Diesel Exposure

Brüske-Hohlfeld, I., Möhner, M., Ahrens, W., et al. (1999). Lung cancer risk in male workers occupationally exposed to diesel motor emissions in Germany. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 36(4), 405–14. Retrieved from

Lipsett, M., & Campleman, S. (1999). Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer: a meta-analysisAmerican Journal of Public Health89(7), 1009–17. Retrieved from

Vermeulen, R., Silverman, D. T., Garshick, E., et al. (2014). Exposure-response estimates for diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer mortality based on data from three occupational cohortsEnvironmental Health Perspectives122(2), 172–7.


Attfield, M. D., Schleiff, P. L., Lubin, J. H., et al. T. (2012). The Diesel Exhaust in Miners study: a cohort mortality study with emphasis on lung cancerJournal of the National Cancer Institute104(11), 869–83.

Neumeyer-Gromen, A., Razum, O., Kersten, N., et al. (2009). Diesel motor emissions and lung cancer mortality–results of the second follow-up of a cohort study in potash minersInternational Journal of Cancer124(8), 1900–6.

Silverman, D. T., Lubin, J. H., Blair, A. E., et al. (2014). RE: The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS): a nested case-control study of lung cancer and diesel exhaustJournal of the National Cancer Institute106(8).

Silverman, D. T., Samanic, C. M., Lubin, J. H., et al. (2012). The Diesel Exhaust in Miners study: a nested case-control study of lung cancer and diesel exhaustJournal of the National Cancer Institute104(11), 855–68.


Basu, R., Harris, M., Sie, L., et al. (2014). Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in CaliforniaEnvironmental Research128, 42–51.

Port Workers and Nearby Residents

Epa, U., & of Inspector General, O. (2009). At a Glance: EPA Needs to Improve Its Efforts to Reduce Air Emissions at U.S. Ports.

EPA’s Office of Inspector General. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Railroad Workers

Garshick, E., Laden, F., Hart, J. E., et al. (2004). Lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaustEnvironmental Health Perspectives112(15), 1539–43. Retrieved from

Garshick, E., Laden, F., Hart, J. E., et al. (2006). Smoking imputation and lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaustAmerican Journal of Industrial Medicine49(9), 709–18.

Garshick, E., Schenker, M. B., Muñoz, A., et al. (1987). A case-control study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust exposure in railroad workersThe American Review of Respiratory Disease135(6), 1242–8. Retrieved from

Hart, J. E., Laden, F., Schenker, M. B., et al. (2006). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality in diesel-exposed railroad workersEnvironmental Health Perspectives114(7), 1013–7. Retrieved from

*Laden, F., Hart, J. E., Eschenroeder, A., et al. (2006). Historical estimation of diesel exhaust exposure in a cohort study of U.S. railroad workers and lung cancer. Cancer Causes and Control, 17(7), 911–919.

Trucking Industry Workers

*Garshick, E., Laden, F., Hart, J. E., et al. (2012). Lung cancer and elemental carbon exposure in trucking industry workersEnvironmental Health Perspectives120(9), 1301–6.

Residents Near Highways

Hinds, Williams C., Sioutas, Constantinos, Z., & Yifang. (2001). 2001 Annual Report | Relationship Between Ultrafine Particle Size Distribution and Distance From Highways| Research Project Database | NCER | ORD | US EPA. Retrieved September 9, 2016, from

Maheswaran, R., & Elliott, P. (2003). Stroke mortality associated with living near main roads in England and wales: a geographical studyStroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation34(12), 2776–80.

*Zhu, Y., Hinds, W. C., Kim, S., et al. (2002). Study of ultrafine particles near a major highway with heavy-duty diesel traffic. Atmospheric Environment, 36(27), 4323–4335.

Residents Near Railroads

*Hricko, A., Rowland, G., Eckel, S., et al. (2014). Global trade, local impacts: Lessons from California on health impacts and environmental justice concerns for residents living near freight rail yardsInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health11(2), 1914–1941.

Residents Near Warehouses

Storing Harm: the Health and Community Impacts of Goods Movement Warehousing and Logistics. (2012).


*American Heart Association. (2010). Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Retrieved from

Bishop, G. A., Schuchmann, B. G., & Stedman, D. H. (2013). Heavy-duty truck emissions in the South Coast Air Basin of California. Environmental Science & Technology, 47(16), 9523–9.

Clean Air Action Plan. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Draft Revised Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (External Draft, July 1999). (n.d.). Retrieved from

EXECUTIVE ORDER B-32-15. (n.d.). Retrieved from

The Report on Diesel Exhaust. (n.d.). Retrieved from