from recycled car batteries at the Exide plant in Vernon ended up in the baby
teeth of children living nearby, a USC study shows.
“We found the
higher the level of lead in the soil, the higher the amount of lead in baby
teeth,” said first author Jill Johnston, an assistant professor of preventive
medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC. “There’s no safe level of lead;
it’s a potent neurotoxin. Our study provides insight into the legacy of the impact
of industrial contamination on children.”
The Exide plant,
located just southeast of downtown Los Angeles, recycled 11 million auto batteries
per year and released 3,500 tons of lead until it closed in March 2015 as part
of a legal settlement for hazardous waste violations.
As many as
250,000 residents, mostly working-class Latinos, face a chronic health hazard
from exposure to airborne lead and arsenic that subsequently settles into the
soil, according to a 2013 health risk assessment by the South Coast Air Quality
For USC’s “Truth Fairy” study, published in the XX edition of Environmental Science & Technology, researchers collected 50 baby teeth from 43 children in five communities: Boyle Heights, Maywood, East L.A., Commerce and Huntington Park. They recruited families through churches, schools and door-to-door visits. A local organization, East Yard Communities for Environmental Justice, coined the name, “Truth Fairy.”
ablation and an analytical technique for molecular-level information, the
researchers were able to look at the teeth layer by layer and assign time
points for lead contamination, such as the second trimester of pregnancy, when
teeth are starting to form in the mother’s womb.
A recent research study by Dr. Rima Habre took a detailed look at
the short-term health impacts caused by breathing in ultrafine particulate
(UFP) matter that is emitted from aircraft activity at the Los Angeles
International Airport (LAX). Several years ago, USC researchers identified a
clear pattern of UFP emissions from takeoff and landing aircraft activities at
LAX. Levels of the dangerous UFPs were found to be 4 to 5 times greater than
background levels in downwind communities.
“Ultrafine particulate matter is known to contribute to reduced lung
function, and airway inflammation in individuals with asthma. We wanted to take
a close look at short term effects on health when individuals breathe air that
contains UFPs from airplanes,” said Habre. The study participants were made up
of adults with doctor diagnosed asthma.
Dr. Rima Habre has been with USC for five years. Dr. Habre’s
expertise lies in air pollution exposure assessment, analyzing patterns of how
people get exposed to air pollution across time and space and studying how
specific pollutants impact their health.
Recently Dr. Habre’s work reached the international stage through a documentary, produced by the Canadian Broadcasting Company, called Something in the Air. “The producers were very interested in learning more about our latest work around air pollution and asthma – specifically around the latest technologies we are using to better understand the impacts of small particles on a personal level – in children and adults with asthma, and in pregnant women.” Dr. Habre was interviewed about her work around ultrafine particle exposures downwind of major airports and its effects on asthma, as well as her work to understand how children’s personal exposure to air pollution predict their risk of experiencing an asthma attack. Something in the Air will be released this week in Canada, with an international release to be announced.
Airport-related ultrafines affect health differently than traffic-related
Habre and her team designed this study to test the short-term effects of breathing ultrafine particles by asking study participants to walk in a Los Angeles park located within the known higher levels of UFPs emitted from airplanes and near heavily trafficked roads, and another park farther away from the airport and busy roads with lower levels of UFPs.
“In our study, we found that inhaling UFPs led to higher
inflammation in the blood in adults with asthma shortly after exposure.
However, different inflammation markers responded to aircraft-related versus
traffic-related UFPs – both of which are major ultrafine particle sources in dense
urban areas. We were able to see these different signals because we managed to
overcome the challenge of separating the air pollution mixture into its major
sources using sophisticated measurements and modeling techniques,” said Habre. The pollutants measured by the study included
UFP particle number, particle size, black carbon, carbon dioxide,
particle-bound polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and ozone.
The significance of Habre’s study is that in such a short time,
following regular walking exposure and a higher exposure, they were able to see
significant elevation in inflammation systemically, not just in the lungs but
in the overall blood circulation. Inflammation is tied to a lot of disease
processes; cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic. “We don’t know
specifically what this inflammation will lead to down the line, but we know
that inflammation is generally a bad thing, and will complicate or exacerbate
existing conditions. Ideally, we would have liked to have been able to monitor
people long-term to see if that inflammation persists or if it goes down after
a while but we were not able to do that in this specific study, that’s a future
direction of this research I’d like to look at,” said Habre.
When asked what this research means to the overall population,
Habre described the current body of research that has found ultrafine particles
to be much more toxic than the larger sizes of particulate matter, UFPs are not
regulated, and UFPs impact large numbers of people who live in communities
Dr. Habre also leads environmental exposure assessment efforts in
multiple research studies being conducted at USC, including the MADRES
study of pregnant women and babies and the LA
DREAMERs study of children’s health across the life course, and in
partnership with other research groups such as the Los Angeles PRISMS
Center, a UCLA/USC partnership. Her work in the Los Angeles PRISMS
Center is taking a deeper dive into the different sources of air
pollution asthmatic children encounter in their day to day lives in Los Angeles
and how it impacts their health. This
study focuses on personal experiences, using Bluetooth-enabled wearable sensors
to monitor environmental exposures, location, activity, medications and
symptoms, to ultimately generate new information to help predict and prevent
asthma attacks. To learn more about the Los Angeles PRISMS Center, watch this
As she moves forward with her research on the health effects of
ultrafine particulate matter in urban areas, Dr. Habre plans to build on her
current work by studying how people with asthma are affected, as well as those
who are obese, have diabetes, or cardiovascular issues. “I would like to be
able to capture a wider variety of sources of ultrafines in urban areas and
also be able to monitor individuals for a longer period of time to really
understand what happens next. In this study we saw very quick and acute
effects, but do people tend to recover after a day? I think the ultimate goal
would be to really understand if people living in these high exposure locations,
for extended periods of time, and breathing this mixture in regularly are at a
significantly higher risk or not,” she said.
For more information on the “Something in the Air” documentary
that Dr. Habre’s work is featured in, on the documentary’s website: www.somethingintheair.ca.
Once the documentary is released in the United States, USC Environmental Health
Centers will publish the release date and viewing information.
Funding: This study was funded by the Southern California
Environmental Health Sciences Center (National Institute of Environmental
Health Sciences, P30ES007048) pilot program, NIEHS grants 1R01ES023262, 1K22ES022987,
1R01ES027860, and the Hastings Foundation.
New research from our Center investigators suggests that early exposure to traffic pollution may be linked to unhealthy diet in adolescence.
by Leigh Hopper, USC Media Relations
Could air pollution be making us fat?
A new USC study suggests that exposure to traffic pollution during childhood makes adolescents 34 percent more likely to eat foods high in unhealthy trans fats — regardless of household income, parent education level or proximity to fast-food restaurants. The findings on air pollution and obesity in teens appear in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
“Strange as it may seem, we discovered kids in polluted communities ate more fast food than other kids,” said Zhanghua Chen, a postdoctoral research associate in the department of preventive medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, and the study’s first author.
Researchers, staff, and interns from the USC Environmental Health Centers attended the 9th annual Environmental Health Leadership Summit of 2018 on October 18-19 in Heber, CA, a small community in the southern part of the Imperial Valley. The annual summit is hosted by Comite Civico del Valle, an environmental justice organization based in the Brawley, CA. Every year, CCV hosts various researchers, state and local agencies, community members, and community organizations share the air pollution mitigation efforts of all parties involved. The annual event is an opportunity for folks to share their projects and tackle environmental justice issues that affect communities in the Imperial Valley and beyond.
Air pollution has become a hot topic in the Imperial Valley due to the frequency of dust storms and bad air quality days that affect this agricultural region. Nearby, the Salton Sea has emerged into the spotlight after years of drought and a decrease in water availability has led to much of the shoreline drying out and leaving behind fine, toxic dust.
This year’s focus was on the various air pollution mitigation efforts made possible by the CA assembly bill, AB617 and the various agencies and stakeholders involved. The first day of the Summit consisted of presentations from the California Air Resources Board and from a couple project leaders regarding the establishment of a CAMN (community air monitoring network) in the Imperial Valley. Presenters also talked about the assembly bill and the process that went into selecting the 10 communities that have become the focal point of the bill. Through a series of workshops, the agency presented attendees with information on topics such as new air monitoring tools, the community engagement aspect of the bill, and data resources among others.
Day 2 of the Summit was centered around the air monitoring efforts taking place in the Imperial Valley. In the first panel, various health professionals presented on their research projects taking place in communities surrounding the Salton Sea and the effects that this large body of water has on the health of nearby inhabitants, especially children. USC investigator, Dr. Jill Johnston gave a brief presentation on the AIRE study which looks at the respiratory health of children living in the Northern part of the Imperial Valley. Following this presentation, the youth environmental health leadership interns talked about their experiences participating in the program and their efforts in meeting with legislators in Sacramento.
The rest of the afternoon followed with more panels that discussed air pollution mitigation efforts across the Imperial Valley and in the eastern Coachella Valley. Guests were able to ask questions throughout each session and network with presenters and other attendees during breaks.
AIRE study staff and student workers ready to talk to attendees about our work.
Dr. Farzan and student workers ready to answer questions.
Community member looking at our pesticide infographic.
Dr. Farzan explains the AIRE study to a community member.
Dr. Farzan is introduced by the mayor of Brawley, Mr. George Nava.
Dr. Johnston presents the AIRE study during the Health Disparities panel.
Dr. Johnston talks about the effects of the drying Salton Sea
The Health Disparities panel answers questions from audience members about their research.
The Community Engagement Core of the MADRES Environmental Health Disparities Center is pleased to share a video about our work to build environmental health literacy around toxins and health impacts found in commonly used household cleaning products with Latina mothers. The popular education workshops, done in partnership with public health interns from CalStateLA, introduce concepts of environmental health and justice rooted in participants lived experience while providing alternative methods for participants to create their own “Do It Yourself” green cleaning products.
“Communicating Air Quality Data and Health Risk to the Public”
Jo Kay Ghosh, PhD
Health Effects Officer
South Coast Air Quality Management District
Friday, September 9, 2016
11:45 a.m.-1:00 p.m.
Soto Street I Building, Room 116
2001 North Soto Street
Los Angeles, CA 90032
If you would like to attend the FREE seminar, please email email@example.com
Dr. Jo Kay Ghosh is the Health Effects Officer at the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). She earned her doctorate in Epidemiology from the UCLA School of Public Health, with her work on air pollution and birth outcomes. She also conducted post-doctoral research at the USC Department of Preventive Medicine, examining the effects of air pollution on cancer risk. Previously, she worked at the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, where she managed the Epidemiology and Research Unit of the Tuberculosis Control Program.
“Perinatal Metal Exposure and Neurodevelopment: Identifying Windows of Susceptibility”
11:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m.
AirPollBrain Mini-Symposium: “Air Pollution and Adolescent Brain Development”
12:00 p.m.-1:30 p.m.
Megan Horton, PhD
Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Tuesday, August 23, 2016
Soto Street I Building, Room 116
2001 North Soto Street
Los Angeles, CA 90032
If you would like to attend the FREE seminar, please email firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Horton earned her doctoral degree in Environmental Health Sciences at Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University. During her doctoral training, she gained expertise in the development and use of biological markers to measure prenatal and early life exposures to environmental toxicants, focusing mainly on residential exposure to pesticides. Subsequently, she completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the Sergievsky Center for the Epidemiologic Study of Neurologic Diseases. The focus of this postdoc was to explore the use of brain imaging to investigate the impact of prenatal exposure to pesticides and secondhand smoke on neuropsychological and behavioral function throughout childhood. Dr. Horton was recently awarded an NIH career transition award and accepted a position as an Assistant Professor of Preventive Medicine at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Her current work combines her experience with biomarker development and neuroimaging to understand the mechanisms of neurodevelopmental toxicity following exposure to chemical mixtures.
Visitor parking at the Soto Street Building is limited. If you are planning to park at the Soto building during the seminar please contact Marissa Jacy (email@example.com) for more information. If you are a USC employee, please plan to take the free USC shuttle to our seminars whenever possible. Information about the USC shuttle can be found at http://transnet.usc.edu/index.php/bus-map-schedules/.