Southern California Environmental Health Sciences Center researchers JC Chen, Diana Younan, Meredith Franklin, and colleagues recently published work documenting their findings about how air pollution can affect the IQ of teens.
Wang, P., Tuvblad, C., & Younan, D., Franklin, M., Lurmann, F., Wu, J., Baker, L., Chen, J.C. (2017). Socioeconomic disparities and sexual dimorphism in neurotoxic effects of ambient fine particles on youth IQ: A longitudinal analysis. PLOS ONE. 12. e0188731. 10.1371/journal.pone.0188731.
A new study linking higher levels of air pollution to increased teenage delinquency is a reminder of the importance of clean air and the need for more foliage in urban spaces, a Keck School of Medicine of USC researcher said.
Tiny pollution particles called particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) — 30 times smaller than a strand of hair — are extremely harmful to your health, according to Diana Younan, lead author of the study.
“These tiny, toxic particles creep into your body, affecting your lungs and your heart,” said Younan, a preventive medicine research associate at the Keck School of Medicine. “Studies are beginning to show exposure to various air pollutants also causes inflammation in the brain. PM2.5 is particularly harmful to developing brains because it can damage brain structure and neural networks and, as our study suggests, influence adolescent behaviors.”
The study, published on Dec. 13 in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, suggests that ambient air pollution may increase delinquent behavior among 9- to 18-year-olds in urban neighborhoods in Greater Los Angeles. The insidious effects are compounded by poor parent-child relationships and parental mental and social distress, researchers said.
“Previous studies by others have shown that early exposure to lead disrupts brain development and increases aggressive behavior and juvenile delinquency,” Younan said. “It’s possible that growing up in places with unhealthy levels of small particles outdoors may have similar negative behavioral outcomes, though more research is needed to confirm this. Both lead and PM2.5 are environmental factors that we can clean up through a concerted intervention effort and policy change.”
More than just a lung and heart concern
The study followed 682 children in Greater Los Angeles for nine years starting when they were 9. Parents completed a child-behavior checklist every few years and noted if their child had engaged in 13 rule-breaking behaviors, including lying and cheating, truancy, stealing, vandalism, arson, or substance abuse. Up to four assessments were recorded per participant.
Researchers used 25 air quality monitors to measure daily air pollution in Southern California from 2000 to 2014. They computed each participant’s residential address and used mathematical modeling to estimate the ambient PM2.5 levels outside each home. About 75 percent of the participants breathed ambient air pollution that exceeded the federal recommended levels of 12 micrograms per cubic meter. Some areas had nearly double the recommended amount of these particles.
“It is widely recognized that ambient air pollution is detrimental to the respiratory and cardiovascular health of young and old alike. But in recent years, scientists have come to acknowledge the negative impact of air pollution on human brains and behaviors,” said Jiu-Chiuan Chen, an associate professor of preventive medicine at the Keck School of Medicine and senior author of the study.
Environmental scientists and economists have speculated that elevated air pollution levels could increase criminal activities in communities. Interestingly, data show that both ambient PM2.5 concentration and crime rates in Southern California have been on the decline, the study stated. Future studies need to examine whether that is mere coincidence or if tightened air regulations might have contributed to the declining crime rates in many metropolitan areas, the researchers said.
“Poor people, unfortunately, are more likely to live in urban areas in less than ideal neighborhoods,” Younan said. “Many affordable housing developments are built near freeways. Living so close to freeways causes health problems such as asthma and, perhaps, alters teenagers’ brain structures so that they are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior.”
This one-two hit may increase teenage delinquency
The study identified higher air pollution estimates near freeways and in neighborhoods with limited greenspace or foliage.
Researchers noticed more delinquent behavior from boys, African-Americans, adolescents from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and people who lived in downtrodden neighborhoods with limited greenspace when compared to their counterparts.
The bad behaviors associated with increased outdoor air pollution levels were magnified when children did not have good relationships with their parents, lived with depressed mothers or grew up in homes with higher levels of parental stress.
“If you live in an area with high air pollution, like near a freeway or in a neighborhood with little greenery, try to avoid being outside so much and keep windows closed as much as possible when the ambient PM2.5 levels are high,” Younan said. “Try to compensate for air pollution by having a good indoor environment and healthy family dynamics.
“A bad parent-child relationship causes a stressful family environment, and if this goes on for too long, the teenager could be in a chronic state of stress. This could wreak havoc on the body, making teens more vulnerable to the effects of exposure to small particles. Many scientists suspect PM2.5 causes inflammation in the brain or somehow travels directly into the brain and messes with neural network connections, resulting in the observed bad behaviors.”
The data was adjusted for gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and neighborhood quality.
More foliage and cleaner air needed
Younan and her colleagues at the USC Environmental Health Sciences Center have collaborated with researchers and engineers from different disciplines at USC for more than two decades to investigate the insidious effects of air pollution. They found that air pollution increases obesity, that teenagers in urban communities with less foliage (such as parks) tend to be more aggressive and that older women living in areas with PM2.5 levels exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s standard had nearly double the risk for dementia when compared to their counterparts.
Catherine Tuvblad and Laura A. Baker from USC; Meredith Franklin, Lianfa Li and Kiros Berhane from the Keck School of Medicine; Fred Lurmann from Sonoma Technology; and Jun Wu from the University of California, Irvine, contributed to the study.
The research was funded by grant funds from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (R21 ES022369, F31 ES025080). Administrative support was provided by the Southern California Environmental Health Sciences Center. The USC Twin Cohort Study was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (R01 MH058354).
At the 2017 annual meeting of the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES), Ed Avol, Professor of Clinical Preventive Medicine at USC, was recognized for his career as an exposure scientist in the field of air pollution research and its public health impacts. Avol received the Constance L. Mehlman Award which aims to “to recognize the ISEA member who has most helped shape a National or State policy with exposure analysis or affected a reduction or prevention of exposure.”
Trained at the California Institute of Technology, Avol’s career as an exposure scientist for over 40 years and his body of work continue to shape state and national policies in terms of providing scientific evidence for reducing air pollution exposures.
His early, groundbreaking work demonstrating respiratory effects of gaseous and particulate air pollutants in carefully controlled clinical exposures with human volunteers transitioned to critical planning and operational roles in the historic southern California Children’s Health Study (CHS) (a longitudinal study of over 12,000 children spanning over 20 years). Avol’s work with colleagues has been frequently cited around the world and has improved our understanding of the impact of air pollution on human health. Numerous publications have resulted from the CHS, documenting and estimating the effects of regional and near-roadway air pollution exposure on children’s lung function growth, school absenteeism, and the prevalence of asthma. He has served on several US EPA Clean Air Science Advisory Committees review panels, contributing to the critical review of scientific evidence (under the Clean Air Act) for setting primary standards for the criteria air pollutants nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and particulate matter to protect public health.
In addition to his outstanding contributions to the field of exposure sciences and the impact of his scientific career on policy, Avol’s has made a major commitment to educating and mentoring the next generation of environmental health and exposure scientists at the undergraduate, graduate, postdoctoral and junior faculty level.
“His devotion and generosity in mentoring, and in outreach to communities heavily impacted by environmental exposures, make him a highly respected, admired and cherished colleague and friend. His work ethic and intellect as well as his modesty are truly inspiring,” said Rima Habre, ScD, Assistant Professor of Clinical Preventive Medicine.
About the Constance L. Mehlman Award: Myron Mehlman, the Society’s first President and former managing editor of the Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, endowed a new ISEA award in 1999 in honor of his late wife, Constance Mehlman, an environmental attorney.
A new report released by the EPA and NIEHS about the impact that environmental exposures have on children’s health. Along with Children’s Center’s from across the country, the research of the Southern California Children’s Environmental Health Center that has been funded by the US EPA and the NIEHS is featured.
“The Children’s Centers examine pressing questions with a wide-angle lens, not allowing the boundaries of any particular field to restrict, define, or determine the array of possible approaches. They bring together experts from many fields, including clinicians, researchers, engineers, social scientists, and others. Relying on a diverse set of disciplines has helped the centers successfully bridge the gap between environmental exposures and health outcomes.” (EPA/NIEHS Children’s Impact Report, Executive Summary).
As referenced in the report, the Southern California Children’s Environmental Health Center’s research has produced findings related to and including:
Maternal exposure to ozone may be associated with reduced birth weight in newborns.
Impacts of traffic related air pollution (TRAP) on children’s risk for asthma.
Research on the relationship between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and Autism Spectrum Disorder suggest that late pregnancy and early life are critical windows of exposure. Measuring residential distance to a major roadway is often used as a marker of TRAP.
The interaction between genes and the environmental that may contribute to Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Being among the first epidemiological studies to indicate that exposure to air pollution is related to body mass index (BMI) in children.
Impact of air pollution on children’s lung function, documenting lung growth when children are exposed to higher levels of pollution and improved lung function when levels have decreased over time.
Maternal smoking during pregnancy can affect the respiratory health of her child. Maternal and grandmaternal smoking during pregnancy increased risk of childhood asthma.
In addition, infographics developed by the center were recognized as tools that have helped educate communities about the public health risks of pollution and other toxic exposures.
The Southern California Environmental Health Sciences Center (SCEHSC, scehsc.usc.edu) is pleased to announce the 2018 Pilot Projects Program, supporting one-year research projects that aim to promote the understanding of environmental exposures and human disease. The goal of the program is to provide investigators with an opportunity to collect preliminary data and/or validate the utility of specific methods or techniques to establish the feasibility of larger-scale research projects and ultimately seek external (especially NIEHS) funding.
The SCEHSC is seeking investigator-initiated applications from all environmental health research areas. Topics of special interest include:
New Approaches for Exposure Assessment
New Approaches for Environmental Disaster Response Research
Climate Change and Environmental Health
Environment, Neurodevelopment, and Neurological Diseases
Environmental Contributions to Obesity and Metabolic Dysfunction
Application of Metabolomics to Environmental Health Research
Complex Mixtures in Environmental Health
Human Microbiome and the Environment
Individuals with a faculty appointment in any department or school/division at USC, CHLA, UCLA, or Caltech are eligible to apply.Request for Applications (RFA)
Prospective applicants will submit a one-page letter of intent (LOI) and a one-page summary of Specific Aims (SA). The LOI will include the project title, a brief summary of project objectives and identification of the key participating investigators. All proposed projects should have a clear and identifiable environmental health emphasis.
Please e-mail Letters of Intent and Specific Aims by the LOI deadline to email@example.com. Successful LOI applicants will be invited to submit a full proposal. Instructions for full proposal submission can be found on the SCEHSC website under the Pilot Projects tab: https://scehsc.usc.edu
Deadlines and Notification Schedule October 2, 2017 at 5 PM: Letter of Intent and Specific Aims Due
October 16, 2017: Invitations to Submit Full Application Sent November 6, 2017 at 5 PM: Full Applications Due
January 2018: Award Notifications Sent
April 1, 2018: Award Start Date
New research from the University of Southern California shows higher air pollution exposures are associated with shorter survival times for people diagnosed with liver cancer. Air pollution has already been linked to shortened lung cancer survival, and this study adds to the growing body of evidence indicating that air pollution can affect other cancers too.
The study, published in the International Journal of Cancer, looked at over 20,000 California patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma, the most common form of liver cancer. “We were interested in the liver since it is the primary organ responsible for detoxification in the body and it could be impacted by exposure to environmental toxins,” said Sandrah Eckel, PhD, assistant professor of Preventive Medicine at the Keck School of Medicine and one of the lead researchers. Since the liver helps filter out toxins from our environment, it may be particularly vulnerable to air pollution.
The researchers focused on tiny particles in the air called particulate matter, the smallest of which measure less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5). These particles are so small they can travel deep into the lungs and even enter the bloodstream. PM2.5 is often released during fuel combustion, either from individual vehicles or at a large industrial sites like a power plant.
“We found that liver cancer patients living in areas with low PM2.5 tended to live longer than patients living in areas with high PM2.5, particularly for patients who were diagnosed at an early stage” said Dr. Eckel. For example, considering only patients diagnosed early, the median survival time was 2.16 years in the areas with lowest PM2.5 concentrations and 0.07 years in the areas with the highest PM2.5 concentrations. The results were similar after adjusting for potential confounders such as socioeconomic status or when limiting to just deaths from liver cancer.
The associations were strongest in the areas of highest pollution, indicating even minor improvements in air quality can improve health. As lead author Huiyu Deng said, “In places with high air pollution levels, even relatively small reductions could have a substantial health impact.” This could have major implications in other countries, where pollution levels are often much higher than in the United States.
What can you do to reduce your air pollution exposure? Dr. Eckel recommends monitoring your air quality index (airnow.gov) and taking the necessary precautions to protect yourself on poor air quality days, such as staying indoors or closing windows. She also recommends exercising away from busy roadways and setting the air control system in your car to “recirculate.”
The article, “Particulate matter air pollution and liver cancer survival” by Huiyu Deng, Sandrah P. Eckel, Lihua Liu, Frederick W. Lurmann, Myles G. Cockburn, and Frank D. Gilliland (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.30779/abstract) appears in the International Journal of Cancer (published online June 7, 2017).
This work was supported by the Southern California Environmental Health Sciences Center (grant 5P30ES007048) funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; the Hastings Foundation; the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program under contract HHSN261201000140C awarded to the Cancer Prevention Institute of California, contract HHSN261201000035C awarded to the University of Southern California and contract HHSN261201000034C awarded to the Public Health Institute; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Program of Cancer Registries, under agreement U58DP003862-01 awarded to the California Department of Public Health.
The USC Environmental Health Centers offers its congratulations to mark! Lopez for winning the 2017 Goldman Prize for North America. mark! is Executive Director of East Yard Communities for Environmental Justice, a community organization based in Commerce and Long Beach which is a long-term community partner of USC Environmental Health Centers. The Goldman Prize honored mark! for his years of activism, and especially for his role in shutting down and trying to clean up contamination from the Exide battery plant – an issue in which Center faculty members Jill Johnston and Andrea Hricko have been deeply involved over the past several years. Hricko commented: “Through my work on environmental health issues at USC, I have had the opportunity to collaborate with several generations of mark!’s family on issues from traffic pollution and asthma, to the ports, and more recently lead poisoning. We congratulate mark! and applaud the leadership and inspiration that he brings to the young and old, from East L.A. to the rest of California and the world.”