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References: Living Near Pesticides

The following references support the content of the infographic: Living Near Pesticides.

Introduction to pesticides

Agency, E. P. (2018). EPA Pesticide Regulation. Retrieved August 21, 2018, from

How are people exposed to pesticides?

Damalas, C. A., & Koutroubas, S. D. (2016). Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention. Toxics, 4(1), 1.

Who are the most vulnerable populations?

Bukalasa, J. S., Brunekreef, B., Brouwer, M., Vermeulen, R., de Jongste, J. C., van Rossem, L., … Gehring, U. (2017). Proximity to agricultural fields as proxy for environmental exposure to pesticides among children: The PIAMA birth cohort. The Science of the Total Environment, 595, 515–520.

Chiu, Y.-H., Williams, P. L., Gillman, M. W., Hauser, R., Rifas-Shiman, S. L., Bellavia, A., … Chavarro, J. E. (2018). Maternal intake of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables in relation to fetal growth. Environment International, 119, 421–428.

Gunier, R. B., Raanan, R., Castorina, R., Holland, N. T., Harley, K. G., Balmes, J. R., … Bradman, A. (2018). Residential proximity to agricultural fumigant use and respiratory health in 7-year old children. Environmental Research, 164, 93–99.

Birth defects

Ling, C., Liew, Z., von Ehrenstein, O. S., Heck, J. E., Park, A. S., Cui, X., … Ritz, B. (2018). Prenatal Exposure to Ambient Pesticides and Preterm Birth and Term Low Birthweight in Agricultural Regions of California. Toxics, 6(3).

Shaw, G. M., Yang, W., Roberts, E. M., Aghaeepour, N., Mayo, J. A., Weber, K. A., … English, P. B. (2018). Residential agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of preeclampsia. Environmental Research, 164, 546–555.

Weselak, M., Arbuckle, T. E., Wigle, D. T., & Krewski, D. (2007). In utero pesticide exposure and childhood morbidity. Environmental Research, 103(1), 79–86.

Wickerham, E. L., Lozoff, B., Shao, J., Kaciroti, N., Xia, Y., & Meeker, J. D. (2012). Reduced birth weight in relation to pesticide mixtures detected in cord blood of full-term infants. Environment International, 47, 80–85.


Blanco-Munoz, J., Aguilar-Garduno, C., Gamboa-Avila, R., Rodriguez-Barranco, M., Perez-Mendez, O., Huesca-Gomez, C., … Lacasana, M. (2013). Association between PON1 genetic polymorphisms and miscarriage in Mexican women exposed to pesticides. The Science of the Total Environment, 449, 302–308.

Yan, S., Zhai, Q., Xing, J., Li, W., Gao, X., & Qiu, Y. (2012). [Relationship between pesticide exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes among famers: a meta-analysis]. Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases, 30(11), 859–862.

Decreased fertility

Hu, Y., Ji, L., Zhang, Y., Shi, R., Han, W., Tse, L. A., … Tian, Y. (2018). Organophosphate and Pyrethroid Pesticide Exposures Measured before Conception and Associations with Time to Pregnancy in Chinese Couples Enrolled in the Shanghai Birth Cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives, 126(7), 77001.

Mehrpour, O., Karrari, P., Zamani, N., Tsatsakis, A. M., & Abdollahi, M. (2014). Occupational exposure to pesticides and consequences on male semen and fertility: a review. Toxicology Letters, 230(2), 146–156.

Delayed menopause

Akkina, J., Reif, J., Keefe, T., & Bachand, A. (2004). Age at natural menopause and exposure to organochlorine pesticides in Hispanic women. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A, 67(18), 1407–1422.

Farr, S. L., Cai, J., Savitz, D. A., Sandler, D. P., Hoppin, J. A., & Cooper, G. S. (2006). Pesticide exposure and timing of menopause: the Agricultural Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 163(8), 731–742.

Early puberty

Namulanda, G., Maisonet, M., Taylor, E., Flanders, W. D., Olson, D., Sjodin, A., … Naeher, L. (2016). In utero exposure to organochlorine pesticides and early menarche in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Environment International, 94, 467–472.

Ozen, S., Goksen, D., & Darcan, S. (2014). Agricultural pesticides and precocious puberty. Vitamins and Hormones, 94, 27–40.

Ozen, S., Darcan, S., Bayindir, P., Karasulu, E., Simsek, D. G., & Gurler, T. (2012). Effects of pesticides used in agriculture on the development of precocious puberty. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184(7), 4223–4232.

Wohlfahrt-Veje, C., Andersen, H. R., Schmidt, I. M., Aksglaede, L., Sorensen, K., Juul, A., … Main, K. M. (2012). Early breast development in girls after prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides. International Journal of Andrology, 35(3), 273–282.

Ye, X., Pan, W., Zhao, Y., Zhao, S., Zhu, Y., Liu, W., & Liu, J. (2017). Association of pyrethroids exposure with onset of puberty in Chinese girls. Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 227, 606–612.


Hoppin, J. A., Umbach, D. M., Long, S., London, S. J., Henneberger, P. K., Blair, A., … Sandler, D. P. (2017). Pesticides are Associated with Allergic and Non-Allergic Wheeze among Male Farmers. Environmental Health Perspectives, 125(4), 535–543.

Mazurek, J. M., & Henneberger, P. K. (2017). Lifetime allergic rhinitis prevalence among US primary farm operators: findings from the 2011 Farm and Ranch Safety survey. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 90(6), 507–515.


Baldi, I., Robert, C., Piantoni, F., Tual, S., Bouvier, G., Lebailly, P., & Raherison, C. (2014). Agricultural exposure and asthma risk in the AGRICAN French cohort. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 217(4–5), 435–442.

Boers, D., van Amelsvoort, L., Colosio, C., Corsini, E., Fustinoni, S., Campo, L., … van Loveren, H. (2008). Asthmatic symptoms after exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamates and other pesticides in the Europit field studies. Human & Experimental Toxicology, 27(9), 721–727.

Cherry, N., Beach, J., Senthilselvan, A., & Burstyn, I. (2018). Pesticide Use and Asthma in Alberta Grain Farmers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(3).

Henneberger, P. K., Liang, X., London, S. J., Umbach, D. M., Sandler, D. P., & Hoppin, J. A. (2014). Exacerbation of symptoms in agricultural pesticide applicators with asthma. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 87(4), 423–432.

Hernandez, A. F., Parron, T., & Alarcon, R. (2011). Pesticides and asthma. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 11(2), 90–96.

Breathing problems

Casey, M. L., & Mazurek, J. M. (2017). Respirator Use Among US Farm Operators With Asthma: Results From the 2011 Farm and Ranch Safety Survey. Journal of Agromedicine, 22(2), 78–88.

Fiori, N. S., Fassa, A. G., Faria, N. M. X., Meucci, R. D., Miranda, V. I., & Christiani, D. C. (2015). Wheezing in tobacco farm workers in southern Brazil. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 58(11), 1217–1228.

Hernandez, A. F., Casado, I., Pena, G., Gil, F., Villanueva, E., & Pla, A. (2008). Low level of exposure to pesticides leads to lung dysfunction in occupationally exposed subjects. Inhalation Toxicology, 20(9), 839–849.

Hoppin, J. A., Umbach, D. M., London, S. J., Lynch, C. F., Alavanja, M. C. R., & Sandler, D. P. (2006). Pesticides and adult respiratory outcomes in the agricultural health study. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1076, 343–354.

Hoppin, J. A., Valcin, M., Henneberger, P. K., Kullman, G. J., Umbach, D. M., London, S. J., … Sandler, D. P. (2007). Pesticide use and chronic bronchitis among farmers in the Agricultural Health Study. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 50(12), 969–979.

Mamane, A., Raherison, C., Tessier, J.-F., Baldi, I., & Bouvier, G. (2015). Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health. European Respiratory Review : An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society, 24(137), 462–473.

Raanan, R., Gunier, R. B., Balmes, J. R., Beltran, A. J., Harley, K. G., Bradman, A., & Eskenazi, B. (2017). Elemental Sulfur Use and Associations with Pediatric Lung Function and Respiratory Symptoms in an Agricultural Community (California, USA). Environmental Health Perspectives, 125(8), 87007.

Raanan, R., Harley, K. G., Balmes, J. R., Bradman, A., Lipsett, M., & Eskenazi, B. (2015). Early-life exposure to organophosphate pesticides and pediatric respiratory symptoms in the CHAMACOS cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives, 123(2), 179–185.


Beard, J. D., Umbach, D. M., Hoppin, J. A., Richards, M., Alavanja, M. C. R., Blair, A., … Kamel, F. (2014). Pesticide exposure and depression among male private pesticide applicators in the agricultural health study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(9), 984–991.

Campos, Y., Dos Santos Pinto da Silva, V., Sarpa Campos de Mello, M., & Barros Otero, U. (2016). Exposure to pesticides and mental disorders in a rural population of Southern Brazil. Neurotoxicology, 56, 7–16.

Freire, C., & Koifman, S. (2013). Pesticides, depression and suicide: a systematic review of the epidemiological evidence. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 216(4), 445–460.

Koh, S.-B., Kim, T. H., Min, S., Lee, K., Kang, D. R., & Choi, J. R. (2017). Exposure to pesticide as a risk factor for depression: A population-based longitudinal study in Korea. Neurotoxicology, 62, 181–185.

Krawczyk, N., Meyer, A., Fonseca, M., & Lima, J. (2014). Suicide Mortality Among Agricultural Workers in a Region With Intensive Tobacco Farming and Use of Pesticides in Brazil. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 56(9), 993–1000.

Sleeping problems

Baumert, B. O., Carnes, M. U., Hoppin, J. A., Jackson, C. L., Sandler, D. P., Freeman, L. B., … London, S. J. (2018). Sleep apnea and pesticide exposure in a study of US farmers. Sleep Health, 4(1), 20–26.


Jamal, F., Haque, Q. S., & Singh, S. (2016). Interrelation of Glycemic Status and Neuropsychiatric Disturbances in Farmers with Organophosphorus Pesticide Toxicity. The Open Biochemistry Journal, 10, 27–34.

Campos, Y., Dos Santos Pinto da Silva, V., Sarpa Campos de Mello, M., & Barros Otero, U. (2016). Exposure to pesticides and mental disorders in a rural population of Southern Brazil. Neurotoxicology, 56, 7–16.

Silva, J. G., Boareto, A. C., Schreiber, A. K., Redivo, D. D. B., Gambeta, E., Vergara, F., … Dalsenter, P. R. (2017). Chlorpyrifos induces anxiety-like behavior in offspring rats exposed during pregnancy. Neuroscience Letters, 641, 94–100.


Brasil, V. L. M., Ramos Pinto, M. B., Bonan, R. F., Kowalski, L. P., & da Cruz Perez, D. E. (2018). Pesticides as risk factors for head and neck cancer: A review. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine : Official Publication of the International  Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology.

Caron-Beaudoin, E., Viau, R., & Sanderson, J. T. (2018). Effects of Neonicotinoid Pesticides on Promoter-Specific Aromatase (CYP19) Expression in Hs578t Breast Cancer Cells and the Role of the VEGF Pathway. Environmental Health Perspectives, 126(4), 47014.

Clausing, P., Robinson, C., & Burtscher-Schaden, H. (2018). Pesticides and public health: an analysis of the regulatory approach to assessing the carcinogenicity of glyphosate in the European Union. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 72(8), 668–672.

Ellsworth, R. E., Kostyniak, P. J., Chi, L.-H., Shriver, C. D., Costantino, N. S., & Ellsworth, D. L. (2018). Organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast tissue and their relationships  with clinical and pathological characteristics of breast cancer. Environmental Toxicology.

Hyland, C., Gunier, R. B., Metayer, C., Bates, M. N., Wesseling, C., & Mora, A. M. (2018). Maternal residential pesticide use and risk of childhood leukemia in Costa Rica. International Journal of Cancer.

Lerro, C. C., Jones, R. R., Langseth, H., Grimsrud, T. K., Engel, L. S., Sjodin, A., … Ward, M. H. (2018). A nested case-control study of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and thyroid cancer in the Janus Serum Bank cohort. Environmental Research, 165, 125–132.

Martin, F. L., Martinez, E. Z., Stopper, H., Garcia, S. B., Uyemura, S. A., & Kannen, V. (2018). Increased exposure to pesticides and colon cancer: Early evidence in Brazil. Chemosphere, 209, 623–631.

Pahwa, M., Harris, S. A., Hohenadel, K., McLaughlin, J. R., Spinelli, J. J., Pahwa, P., … Blair, A. (2012). Pesticide use, immunologic conditions, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Canadian men in six provinces. International Journal of Cancer, 131(11), 2650–2659.

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